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All Posts in Category: Clinical Conditions

What is Iliotibial band syndrome?


courtesy eorthopod

ITB syndrome is when there is discomfort or pain on the outside of the knees particularly in runners. The cause of the pain is commonly from repetitive friction from the sliding movement of the iliotibial band as the knee is bent particularly between 30 and 45 degrees.  The iliotibial band is a fibrous tissue that attaches to the femoral condyle at the knee. ITB syndrome falls under the category of repetitive trauma and overuse injury.

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What is Frozen Shoulder or Adhesive Capsulitis?

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis is when the shoulder capsule becomes inflamed and the fibrotic adhesions limit shoulder movement resulting in pain and stiffness.

There are three stages of the frozen shoulder symptoms

  1. Freezing: initially characterised by pain around the shoulder, it is them followed by progressive loss of range of movement
  2. Frozen: There is minimal pain with no further loss of range neither is there any gain in range of motion. Pain is noticeable usually at end range only.
  3. Thawing: There is a gradual return of range of movement and there would also be weakness due to disuse



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What is shoulder rotator cuff injury?

The shoulder girdle has a relatively unstable ball and socket joint and it uses surrounding muscles to stabilise it. The rotator cuff muscles form a cusp around the shoulder joint and are responsible for shoulder rotation aside other movement in the upper limb. There are four muscles which make up the rotator cuff: subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus and the teres minor. These muscles or their tendons are susceptible to inflammation, tears, impingement and tears.

Some of the commonly encountered rotator cuff injuries are:

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What is Erbs Palsy or Brachial Plexus Injury?

Erbs Palsy is a paralysis or weakness of the muscles of the arm following an injury to a plexus of nerves in the upper limb region called the brachial plexus. An injury to part of this plexus results in weakness or paralysis of certain muscles in the arm. Though there are different types of injuries, Erbs palsy is the most frequently occurring one usually associated with assisted childbirth. The birth injury typically occurs when there is a stretch on the shoulder, arm or neck while assisting with delivery. This injury affects the C5-C6 nerve root and its deformity is commonly described as waiter’s tip deformity. Trauma, dislocation and gunshot can also cause brachial plexus injury in adults.

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What is Arthritis?

Arthritis is a broad term that encompasses conditions which affect joints. Broadly speaking, the structures which protect and reinforce the joint become damaged and the patient starts to experience pain, stiffness and inflammation. For instance, the cartilage, which is the tissue that covers the bone surface and allows ease of movement wears out and the bone tissue grinds against itself causing a lot of discomfort to the patient. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile arthritis.

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What is a Stroke?

Stroke, sometimes called cerebrovascular accident is a term used to describe interruption of blood supply to the brain. This interruption can be caused by either a blocked or ruptured blood vessel. It then causes the brain cells to lose oxygen supply and the part of the body where the brain controls becomes impaired.

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Early Intervention or Physiotherapy for Children with Special Needs or Cerebral Palsy Disability


Early intervention is a service for babies or toddlers who have developmental delay or disability. Typically, this ranges from birth till age three though some children still require help after age three.

The aim of early intervention focuses on teaching the child basic skills which normally develop in the first three years of life but which the child is struggling with. There are five broad categories:

  • Cognitive (thinking, learning, solving problems)
  • Physical (rolling, reaching, transferring, crawling and walking)
  • Communication (listening, talking, understanding)
  • Self-help (eating, dressing)
  • Social/Emotional (playing, happy, integration, security)
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Back pain in Pregnancy


As the baby grows within a woman’s womb, the body goes through several changes to accommodate the growing foetus. Back pain is a common occurrence in pregnant women and there are several causes.

Causes of back pain in pregnant women

Hormonal changes-relaxin which helps ligaments to prepare for birth also cause the spine to become a bit more unsteady and pain. Most commonly, the sacro-iliac joint is the most susceptible to pain during pregnancy because that is where the pelvis and spine meet.

Weight gain: The additional weight of the growing foetus means the spine, low back have to accommodate the additional weight.

Muscle diastasis: the muscles in the anterior wall may become separated which then cause the back pain to worsen since they would fail in their reinforced support of the back.

body changes in pregnancy


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